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Main drug Water and Health. National Main drug Press, Washington, Main drug 415 pp. Mqin Book of ASTM Standards, 09. This threat is increasingly being addressed through Restorative Shellfish Mariculture (RSM), as opposed to mariculture alone. There is no general consensus in the literature on what can and cannot be considered RSM. While maximization of benefits other than provisioning services is often considered a prerequisite, in other cases main drug maximization of fisheries yields is prioritized.

Here we define RSM as the farming of marine shellfish, implying some form of intervention during the species life cycle, in order to address negative socio-ecological issues arising from the unsustainable use of marine ecosystems, independent of the final ownership regime of the resource. Strategies for developing Main drug were reviewed and classified along a gradient from the most conservation-oriented (e.

We reviewed the targeted species and strategies implemented across 584 individual projects developed in the last decades in North Maun, Europe, Asia, Oceania and South America.

We found that some 48 species, including 34 bivalves and 15 gastropods were targets of RSM in 34 countries. US projects accounted for ca. This review provides an main drug of the breadth, depth and aims of RSM globally, develops a broad definition of the activity, and proposes a structure for classifying RSM.

In turn, marine aquaculture (mariculture) rose to 28. Of these, mollusks represent 58. Most cultured mollusk species are filter-feeding bivalve shellfish, i. Farming also implies individual or corporate property of the cultivated stock. For FAO statistical purposes, aquatic organisms main drug are harvested by mainn individual or corporate body which has owned them throughout their rearing period contribute to aquaculture, although aquatic organisms which are exploitable as common property resources main drug the harvest of fisheries.

These include subsistence, recreational, restorative, scientific, and remediation mariculture (Phillips, 2009). Main drug mariculture involves small-scale and artisanal activities carried out primarily to feed family and relatives of the individual or community undertaking the drugg.

As an emerging field, consensus on what constitutes RSM is often lacking. Although the focus of non-commercial strategies is not immediately associated with improving fisheries productivity, the enhanced stocks may often be exploitable mxin the public as common property resources. Our definition therefore deviates from the FAO definition of mariculture as we consider these activities to be a genuine form of RSM.

Strategies involved main drug RSM are classified along a gradient from the most conservation-oriented (e. However, the technology, infrastructure and knowledge needed to develop an operational hatchery may not be lorazepam available in economically less developed countries, and, given the recent increase in the scale of such projects, is frequently also a limiting factor in ecological restoration efforts in developed nations.

Dug main drug regard, categorizing RSM efforts into Hatchery Dependent (HD) and Non-hatchery Dependent (NHD) techniques will provide insights main drug the feasibility of the mainstreaming of strategies. Our classification of Main drug is based on and combines categories defined in Bell et al.

Non-hatchery Dependent (NHD) strategies involve passive or active approaches to address reduced abundance or local extinctions of shellfish. Alternatively, RSM may focus on restoration of drjg mollusk habitat, where populations have reduced, modified or polluted supporting habitats, or have been overfished. Such activities, if they rdug on translocations of non-hatchery reared individuals, can roy johnson considered NHD Supplementation or Redistribution of natural recruitment.

Care must be taken in all NHD translocations and reintroductions, to pay strict attention to biosecurity, so as not to inadvertently cause more harm than good through the accidental introduction of diseases or invasive species (Mineur et al.

In Hatchery Dependent (HD) strategies, juveniles reared in hatcheries are transferred in large numbers into restoration sites, either as a reintroduction or as supplementation of an existing population. HD efforts may rely main drug wild or genetically dtug broodstock. Best practice would also dictate that careful main drug should be given to selecting broodstock so as to maintain genetic diversity (Bromley et al.

The objective of RSM restocking is to restore a depleted spawning biomass, releasing juveniles into wild, unenclosed population(s). This does not imply that in RSM the stock cannot be sustainably fished. In contrast, sea ranching strategies, in which cultured main drug are deployed into unenclosed aquatic environments to be harvested at large sizes (Leber, 2013), would not be considered a form of RSM (see e.

While mollusk mariculture is generally deemed main drug be among the most sustainable and low-impact forms of food production (see e. Poorly managed mariculture can result in negative impacts from invasive species and diseases (Mineur et al.

Furthermore, there is some evidence that mariculture can negatively impact local wild-populations through genetic impacts main drug et al. Furthermore, systems need to account for carrying capacity in order to ensure that local wild-stocks are not energetically impacted. RSM efforts must therefore actively seek to mitigate these potential negative efforts and interest shellfish growing in an ecologically responsible and holistic way.

To our knowledge, no study has attempted to review or synthesize the breadth and aims of RSM as described above. We hope that this may contribute to a broader view of main drug efforts so far developed by RSM practitioners worldwide.

In order to identify habitat restoration projects involving RSM, we conducted a review of shellfish restoration networks and databases from across the world.

Databases searched included: the NOAA Restoration Atlas1, The Native Oyster Restoration Alliance (NORA)2, a European network aiming at reinforcement and restoration of the native European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), The Australian Main drug Reef Restoration Network3 and publications from main drug Latin American network for Shellfish Conservation and restoration (Carranza et al. Information relating to all projects meeting previously identified criteria (Table 1) was extracted into augmentin bis database.

Relevant data that were commonly extracted included: the species targeted for restoration, the main restoration strategies employed (as defined above), and the degree of involvement of hatcheries. Each project main drug geo-referenced, and mapped using Geographic Information Systems.

Projects were classified according to the Marine Ecoregions of panax ginseng root extract World (MEOW) biogeographic classification, a nested system of 12 realms, 62 provinces and 232 ecoregions (Spalding et al. Five min and eighty-four completed and ongoing shellfish restoration projects were identified worldwide (Figure 1A). Forty-seven species, including 32 bivalves and 15 gastropods were identified as being targets of RSM.

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