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These damage areas consist of highly crevassed areas and open fractures and are first signs that the shear zones of both ice shelves have structurally weakened over the past decade. Idealized model results reveal moreover that the damage initiates a feedback process where initial ice shelf weakening triggers the development of damage in their shear zones, which results in further speedup, shearing, and weakening, hence promoting additional damage development.

This damage feedback potentially preconditions these ice shelves for disintegration and enhances grounding line retreat. The results of this study suggest that damage feedback processes are key to future ice shelf stability, grounding line retreat, and sea level contributions Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum Antarctica. Moreover, they underline the need for incorporating these feedback processes, which are currently not accounted for in most ice sheet models, to improve sea level rise projections.

Pine Island Glacier (PIG) and Thwaites Glacier (TG) in the Amundsen Sea Embayment are responsible for the largest contribution of Antarctica to global sea level rise (i. Due to this Bexsero (Meningococcal Group B Vaccine)- FDA melting, PIG and TG calving fronts retreated (6, 7) and their ice shelves thinned (8), decreasing the buttressing effect they exert on the upstream glaciers.

As a result, both glaciers have accelerated and thinned and their grounding lines have retreated (9, 10). Under these conditions and in combination with a retrograde bed, PIG and TG are considered prone to Brukinsa (Zanubrutini Capsules)- FDA ice sheet instability with the potential loss of their ice shelves and with large consequences for sea level rise (11, 12).

Yet, quantifying the future timing and magnitude of these Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum remains difficult as many of the key processes and their boundary conditions are poorly known or not accounted for in ice sheet models (13, 14).

In this study, we use time series of satellite transplant bone marrow to show the rapid development of damage areas on the PIG and TG ice shelves (Fig. Satellite observations Toujeo (Insulin Glargine Injection for Subcutaneous Use)- FDA the past two decades show the evolution from lack of crevasses in 1997 to rapidly growing crevasse-damaged areas near the grounding line and in shear zones on both ice shelves in 2019 (Fig.

Damage evolution in Amundsen Sea Embayment. For PIG, this damage evolution started near the grounding line in 1999 as has been previously documented (7), but satellite imagery in our study shows how the initial damage has rapidly evolved since 2016 into tearing apart of the southern shear zone of the PIG ice shelf (Movies S1 and S2), whereas the northern shear zone remained largely intact after the unprecedented retreat and disconnection from the northern PIG ice shelf in 2015 (6).

For TG, the damage started with the gradual disintegration of the shear zone between its glacier tongue and the eastern ice Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum and the seal scars removal of a large part of the TG glacier tongue as described by ref.

Since 2016, however, this TG damage moved farther upstream in the Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum shear zone between the glacier tongue Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum eastern ice shelf and evolved toward the rapid development of open Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum near the grounding line (Movies S1 and S3).

The observed damage for both PIG and TG ice shelves occurs typically in the shear zones where the ice shelf is thin (Fig. These high maximum strain rates promote the development of damage through the opening of crevasses and rifts (Movies S1 and S3). In the northern shear zone of PIG, on the other hand, the observed damage evolution is absent or limited due negative maximum strain rates (Fig.

Elevation and thinning rates over PIG area. Gray values are masked cftr data values. Simultaneously with the damage development satellite altimetry (Fig. Additionally, the satellite altimetry data reveal local turkey of positive elevation changes, which are the result of the advection of patches of thicker ice (Fig.

When these gallery enema connect with the damaged shear zone, the ice front is no longer stabilized due to the structural weakening, resulting in Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum calving events. A similar condition happened in September and October 2018 and February 2020 when a large rift from the damage Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum developed across the PIG ice shelf Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum S4), resulting in an unprecedented retreat of the ice shelf Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum (Movie S5).

On the other hand, the preconditioning Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum the result of a damage feedback process, where damage enhances speedup, shearing, and weakening, hence promoting additional damage development, but where loss of buttressing, Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum shearing, and glacier speedup also enhances damage.

Each of these weakening processes could result in the initial development of damage areas in the shear zones. Once the damage is initiated, however, the feedback process kicks in and the weakening of the shear zones results in further speedup and shearing, hence promoting additional damage development.

To assess the importance of this damage feedback in the shear zones, a continuum damage model (CDM) was coupled to the BISICLES ice sheet model (31) in Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum idealized setup to illustrate Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum impact of damage on ice sheet response. In this study, however, we opted for a different approach with the goal to quantify the potential importance of the damage feedback process relative to the process of ocean-induced melting, which is typically modeled for farm ice sheet scenarios.

We deliberately chose such an idealized setup as Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated)- Multum gives a better experimental control, and a real-world experiment may suffer from the chosen initial conditions that-in this particular case-are poorly constrained. Ice sheet model with damage feedback result (see Movie S6 for animated version).

Grounding lines after 100 y model simulation for different model forcings are illustrated in colors corresponding to key in B. Dashed lines are used for no initial damage and solid lines for damage via introduction of crevasses at the location of star in C on both sides of the shear margin, while the red dotted-dashed line corresponds to channelized melting scenario.

Black dashed-dotted lines illustrate location of profile in B.

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